Connected on 2013-10-21 13:00:00 from Douglas, Nebraska, United States
- Bugscope Team hello!
- Bugscope Team we're loading the sample...
- Bugscope Team sample is pumping down
- Bugscope Team now we're making presets
- Bugscope Team hello Mrs P!
- Bugscope Team welcome to Bugscope!
- Teacher Hello, Scot, I am checking things out!
- Bugscope Team we're still collecting presets for you
- Bugscope Team if we can keep control of the 'scope a bit longer...
- Teacher Thank you, I am waiting on my students to return from lunch.
- Bugscope Team very happy to see you on board!
- Teacher Thank you, I'll log back in around 12:50.
- Bugscope Team you needn't log off...
- Teacher Hello, Scot, the students are here.
- Bugscope Team super cool!
- Bugscope Team this is a beetle, and you can see on the left that there is a small insect - an aphid
- Bugscope Team we're looking at the face of the beetle, and it has lots of mouthparts plus some limbs across it
- Bugscope Team so for example to the right we see one of the pads that helps the beetle stick to vertical srufaces
- Bugscope Team surfaces...
- Bugscope Team the pad is called a pulvillus, and it has lots of tiny hairs on it, called tenent setae
- Teacher Is the beetle going to eat the aphid?
Bugscope Team maybe it was -- that is what ladybugs like to eat, especially
- Bugscope Team You can see how hairy the beetle is, those hairs are called setae, and they are used to sense the environment
- Bugscope Team aphids are softbodied, and when they dry they kind of shrivel up and become unrecognizable
- Bugscope Team there is also a lot of dried fluid
- Bugscope Team in this shot you can see the compound eye in the background
- Bugscope Team through the arched limbs we can see one of the beetle's compound eyes
- Teacher no need- we are labeling what we can as we go.
- Bugscope Team the coxa is the small part nearest to the body
- Teacher The students are sketching what they see and are wondering if you know what the joints of the insects' legs are called?
Bugscope Team they have names like trochanter and coxa... I can look them up
Bugscope Team it goes body, coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, and tarsus
- Bugscope Team the trochanter is next, and longer
- Bugscope Team femur and tibia are also names for human limbs
- Bugscope Team there are five tarsal segments, the 'forearm' segments
Bugscope Team This varies depending on the species of insect.
- Bugscope Team Joe is an entomologist.
- Teacher Thank you.
- Bugscope Team please be sure to click on other presets -- you will have access to these same images later as well
- Bugscope Team you can see one of the beetle's claws, to the right, and also its antenna
- Bugscope Team I mean to the left, to the beetle's right
- Bugscope Team Hi Maeve!
- Bugscope Team the background is double stick carbon tape, with some silver paint used to help glue down the insects
- Bugscope Team the compound eye, instead of the sci-fi movies where insects see multiple images, actually gives the insect a low resolution image.
- Bugscope Team many flying insects also have simple eyes, called ocelli, on the top of the head
- Teacher One of the students, Sara, would like to know what purpose the setae serves?
Bugscope Team they help make up for the lack of feeling they have with their exoskeleton. The setae helps the insect to feel what is around them, or sometimes they serve different purposes, like smelling/tasting or sensing temperatures
- Teacher Thank you.
- Bugscope Team setae are often sensory
- Teacher CAn you estimate the size of the specimen without magnification?
Bugscope Team if you look at the scalebar at the lower left, that is sometimes helpful; this beetle is about a centimeter long
- Teacher I see, thank you.
- Bugscope Team the scalebar changes according to the magnification, so when we are at a high magnification it may read in microns or micrometers
- Bugscope Team a micron, or micrometer, is a thousandth of a millimeter
- Bugscope Team milli means a thousandth, so a milli meter is a thousandth of a meter
- Bugscope Team micro means a millionth, and a micron or micrometer is a millionth of a meter, quite small
- Bugscope Team a rod shaped bacterium, like E coli, is usually about 2 micrometers long.
- Bugscope Team a human hair can be 75 to 100 micrometers thick
- Bugscope Team 100 micrometers is a tenth of a millimeter
- Bugscope Team this is cool -- one of the beetle's claws
- Bugscope Team to the right we see setae that are sticky and help the beetle cling to things
- Teacher What does this do for the beetle?
Bugscope Team it functions somewhat like a hand does for us. some claws can open and close, like a hand
- Teacher What type of beetle is this?
Bugscope Team I think this is sometimes called a cucumber beetle
- Bugscope Team it kind of looks like a skinny ladybug
- Bugscope Team some of the setae we see are used for proprioception, which is a fancy word for self sensing
- Bugscope Team that is, insects have setae or bristles that let them know whether, for example, a limb is hyperextended
- Bugscope Team now we can see the surface of the exoskeleton, which is called the cuticle
- Bugscope Team red blood cells in people, for example, are usually 8 to 14 microns in diameter
- Bugscope Team other cells are often larger, maybe 20 to 30 microns, or micrometers
- Bugscope Team you can see now that the micron bar is 10 bacteria long
- Teacher We have zoomed in to 2496X and are seeing what looks like cell walls on the exterior of the claw-would that be correct?
Bugscope Team maybe Joe knows; I am not sure whether those are the borders of cells or not. They are indeed close to the size of some mammalian cells.
Bugscope Team hmm. I think those lines you are seeing is actually how the cuticle is formed. It is secreted from the inside, and layers form atop each other, and afterwards undergo a hardening process
- Teacher Thank you.
- Bugscope Team some setae do not project through the cuticle; they are not sensory and they are called microsetae.
- Teacher Are the small white flecks dust?
Bugscope Team yes! we often see tiny particles like that
- Bugscope Team i would say roughly a year or two, if we are counting from egg to adult.
Bugscope Team adults not lasting more than a month or so.
- Teacher Thank you. What is the life span of the cucumber beetle?
Bugscope Team they usually live between 1-3 months.
- Teacher molecular
- Teacher Is it possible to see at the molecualr level with this scope?
Bugscope Team when we use the microscope for Bugscope we are limited in the magnification we can achieve; we can see clusters of molecules but individual molecules, generally
- Teacher Thank you
- Bugscope Team but *not* individual molecules
- Bugscope Team people sometimes remind us that a diamond is considered a large molecule of carbon atoms
- Bugscope Team with a transmission electron microscope, we have a better chance of seeing molecules, but they are usually really quite small
- Teacher May we click on a different specimen sample on the left or do we remain on the beetle?
Bugscope Team please click on any of the presets; we made them for you
- Bugscope Team yay! it's a fly's head!
- Bugscope Team you can see its compound eyes very clearly, and you can see the bases of its antennae
- Bugscope Team its body fell off...
- Bugscope Team with flies, the compound eyes of males are often close together and sometimes touch; females' eyes are often far apart
- Bugscope Team the kind of 'fur' we see on the surface of the head is called the 'vestiture'
- Bugscope Team we can see that the fly has thousands of ommatidia per eye
- Bugscope Team some large wasps or hornets are said to have as many as 30,000 ommatidia per eye
- Bugscope Team an ommatidium is an individual eye facet
- Bugscope Team each of those ommatidia sees a part of the larger picture, and together provides the fly with the whole image.
- Bugscope Team the dome shape of the eye, with its thousands of lenses, means that the fly has very good peripheral vision; it can see much more than we can see without moving our headsu
- Teacher Thank you, Scot.
- Bugscope Team depending on the way the interior of the ommatidia are set up, some insects are better able to see in the dark
- Bugscope Team here we can see the honeybee's stinger
- Bugscope Team it is blunt, but we can see the barbs on the sides that help it cut into skin and also stay stuck there
- Bugscope Team this honeybee had a long, difficult life, looks like
- Bugscope Team but it didn't sting any mammals, apparently
Bugscope Team Scott, is saying that it hasn't stung any mammals because mammalian skin tends to hook the stinger, pulling it along with the bee's guts out with it.
- Bugscope Team tthese also work as an ovipositor
Bugscope Team an ovipositor is used to deposit eggs (ova)
- Teacher Thank you-the barbs are fascinating!
- Bugscope Team these are moth scales, they kind of resemble ridged potato chips
- Bugscope Team the way they are physically structured is part of what gives moths and butterflies their colours
- Bugscope Team sometimes the scales are also filled with pigment cells
- Bugscope Team they are a form of seta
- Bugscope Team so the pores we saw a second ago are from where some of the scales were lost
- Bugscope Team the ridges we see interfere with the wavelengths of light and produce what are called structural colors
- Bugscope Team some of those structural colors -- colors due to the widths of the ridges -- can be in colors we cannot see
- Teacher What color would this insect be?
Bugscope Team I think it was a yellowy brown color
- Teacher Thank you.
- Bugscope Team insects that look quite dull to us may be broadcasting bright colors in ultraviolet light to other insects
- Teacher cool!
- Bugscope Team totally gnarly
- Bugscope Team now you can see features -- the little round components of the mold spores -- on the nano scale
- Bugscope Team maybe 150 to 200 nanometers..
- Bugscope Team this is cool as well
- Bugscope Team we're going to run out of this kind of salt at some point, and we will be sad
- Bugscope Team sodium chloride -- table salt -- forms cubic crystals
- Bugscope Team here the sodium chloride forms cubes that also form a larger cube
- Teacher Where does this salt come from?
Bugscope Team Wendy's.
- Bugscope Team these are from salt packets
- Teacher Is this regular table salt?
Bugscope Team we think this salt, which is mostly regular table salt, also has an anticaking agent in it that makes it form those cool incised shapes. but we do not really know.
- Bugscope Team they are shaped like aztec ruins
- Teacher We were wondering why it is called aztec salt-
Bugscope Team it's just what we started calling it because to us it resembles Aztec carvings
Bugscope Team in Aztec ruins, as Cate says
- Teacher I see!
- Bugscope Team tiny bits of dust and salt
- Teacher Thank you so much-the students have to go to their next class-this was fascinating!
- Bugscope Team Thank you!
- Bugscope Team We enjoyed working with you!
- Bugscope Team thanks for using bugscope today with us!
- Teacher Thank you, what a wonderful, informative opportunity!
- Bugscope Team thank you!
- Bugscope Team see you next year!
- Bugscope Team time to shut down!
- Bugscope Team thank you, Everyone!